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Teen Sexting and Teacher-Student Boundary Dilemmas
6 CEUs Cultural Diversity & Ethical Boundaries: Freedom from Stereotypes


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Psychologist CEs, Counselor CEUs, Social Worker CEUs, MFT CEUs

Peer-Reviewed Journal Article References:
Campbell, S., Chong, S., Ewen, V., Toombs, E., Tzalazidis, R., & Maranzan, K. A. (2016). Social media policy for graduate students: Challenges and opportunities for professional psychology training programs. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 57(3), 202–210.

Costin, F., & Grush, J. E. (1973). Personality correlates of teacher-student behavior in the college classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 65(1), 35–44.

Dombrowski, S. C., LeMasney, J. W., Ahia, C. E., & Dickson, S. A. (2004). Protecting Children From Online Sexual Predators: Technological, Psychoeducational, and Legal Considerations. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(1), 65–73. 

Holdaway, A. S., & Becker, S. P. (2018). Sluggish cognitive tempo and student–teacher relationship quality: Short-term longitudinal and concurrent associations. School Psychology Quarterly, 33(4), 537–546. 

Kim, J. (2021). The quality of social relationships in schools and adult health: Differential effects of student–student versus student–teacher relationships. School Psychology, 36(1), 6–16

Kinicki, A. J., & Schriesheim, C. A. (1978). Teachers as leaders: A moderator variable approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(6), 928–935.

Laninga-Wijnen, L., Ryan, A. M., Harakeh, Z., Shin, H., & Vollebergh, W. A. M. (2018). The moderating role of popular peers’ achievement goals in 5th- and 6th-graders’ achievement-related friendships: A social network analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(2), 289–307.

Larue, D., Schmidt, A. F., Imhoff, R., Eggers, K., Schönbrodt, F. D., & Banse, R. (2014). Validation of direct and indirect measures of preference for sexualized violence. Psychological Assessment, 26(4), 1173–1183. 

Littleton, H., Layh, M., Rudolph, K., & Haney, L. (2019). Evaluation of the Sexual Experiences Survey—Revised as a screening measure for sexual assault victimization among college students. Psychology of Violence, 9(5), 555–563. 

Li, Y., Hughes, J. N., Kwok, O.-m., & Hsu, H.-Y. (2012). Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of child, teacher, and peer reports of teacher–student support. Psychological Assessment, 24(1), 54–65.

López, V., Benbenishty, R., Astor, R. A., Ascorra, P., & González, L. (2020). Teachers victimizing students: Contributions of student-to-teacher victimization, peer victimization, school safety, and school climate in Chile. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 90(4), 432–444.

McIntyre, E. M., Baker, C. N., Overstreet, S., & The New Orleans Trauma-Informed Schools Learning Collaborative. (2019). Evaluating foundational professional development training for trauma-informed approaches in schools. Psychological Services, 16(1), 95–102.

Post, P. B., Grybush, A. L., Flowers, C., & Elmadani, A. (2020). Impact of child–teacher relationship training on teacher attitudes and classroom behaviors. International Journal of Play Therapy, 29(3), 119–130.

Ruvalcaba, Y., & Eaton, A. A. (2020). Nonconsensual pornography among U.S. adults: A sexual scripts framework on victimization, perpetration, and health correlates for women and men. Psychology of Violence, 10(1), 68–78. 

Subrahmanyam, K., Smahel, D., & Greenfield, P. (2006). Connecting developmental constructions to the internet: Identity presentation and sexual exploration in online teen chat rooms. Developmental Psychology, 42(3), 395–406. 

Toussieng, P. (1969). Teachers and differences. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 39(5), 730–734.

Tulkin, S. R., Muller, J. P., & Conn, L. K. (1969). Need for approval and popularity: Sex differences in elementary school students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33(1), 35–39. 

Wang, M.-T., Brinkworth, M., & Eccles, J. (2013). Moderating effects of teacher–student relationship in adolescent trajectories of emotional and behavioral adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 49(4), 690–705. 

Weymouth, B. B., & Buehler, C. (2018). Early adolescents’ relationships with parents, teachers, and peers and increases in social anxiety symptoms. Journal of Family Psychology, 32(4), 496–506. 

Worell, J., & Oakley, D. R. (2000). Teaching as transformation: Resolving ethical dilemmas in feminist pedagogy. In M. M. Brabeck (Ed.), Psychology of women book series. Practicing feminist ethics in psychology (p. 167–186). American Psychological Association.

Wurtele, S. K., & Kenny, M. C. (2010). Preventing online sexual victimization of youth. The Journal of Behavior Analysis of Offender and Victim Treatment and Prevention, 2(1), 63–73.

Additional References:

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- American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. (2015, January 1). Code of Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.aamft.org/iMIS15/AAMFT/Content/Legal_Ethics/Code_of_Ethics.aspx

- American Counseling Association. (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/docs/ethics/2014-aca-code-of-ethics.pdf?sfvrsn=4

- American Psychological Association (APA). (2017, January 1). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code

- Barker, R. L. (1998). Milestones in the Development of Social Work and Social Welfare. Washington, DC: NASW Press.

- Connecticut State Department of Education. (January 2015). Ethical and Professional Dilemmas for Educators. Connecticut State Department of Education. 1-47.

- Del Rey, R., Ojeda, M., Casas, J. A., Mora-Merchán, J. A., & Elipe, P. (2019). Sexting Among Adolescents: The Emotional Impact and Influence of the Need for Popularity. Frontiers in psychology10, 1828, 1-9.

- Gassó, A. M., Mueller-Johnson, K., & Montiel, I. (2020). Sexting, Online Sexual Victimization, and Psychopathology Correlates by Sex: Depression, Anxiety, and Global Psychopathology. International journal of environmental research and public health17(3), 1018, 1-18.

- Harris, A. J., PhD, Davidson, J., Letourneau, E., Paternite, C., & Miofsky, K. T. (10-30-2013). Building a Prevention Framework to Address Teen “Sexting” Behaviors. U.S. Department of Justice, 1-87.

- McLean, S. (2014). Advice Sheets: Sexting. Department of Education and Training, Cyber Safety Solutions, 1-2.

- National Association of Social Workers. (2017). NASW Code of Ethics. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics-English

- National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc. and Affiliates. (2016, October 7). NBCC Code of Ethics. Retrieved from https://www.nbcc.org/Assets/Ethics/NBCCCodeofEthics.pdf

- Reamer, F. (1998). The Evolution of Social Work Ethics. Social Work, 43(6), 488-500. Retrieved June 10, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23717765

- Russo, C. J., J.D., Ed.D. & Arndt, K. J., Ph.D., PCC. (May 2020). Technology and the Law: The Dangers of Sexting in Schools. School Business Affairs, 36-38.

- Venet, Alex Shevrin (2019) "Role-Clarity and Boundaries for Trauma-Informed Teachers," Educational Considerations, 44(2), 1-8.


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