involves increasing a target behavior by applying selective positive reinforcement.
It is necessary that the client or staff member exhibit some initial behavior
which is then increased by reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the
desired target behavior. This increase in behavior is achieved by waiting for,
or by prompting the first response, and immediately following this with a positive
reinforcements that are sufficiently frequent and increasing the criterion for
reinforcement, the target behavior is slowly increased. During shaping, reinforcement
is given for responses meeting your criterion to move toward the target behavior.
Once established, the frequency of reinforcement is changed to one that is sufficient
enough to maintain the target behavior.
following steps can be implemented to shape a behavior:
1. Specify the
final responses(s) or target behavior. On the tape, the target behavior would
be chosen from the steps in washing a resident's face. For example, turn on the
water; adjust temperature and flow; wet the wash cloth; wring out excess moisture;
put soap on the cloth; and proceed to wash face from the inner to the outer periphery.
2. Specify the positive reinforcer(s) you will use.
3. The starting
behavior: Look for a response that has something, however small, in common
with the target behavior. The initial response to be reinforced must bear some
resemblance to the target behavior. In selecting a shaping dimension, identify
a feature of a behavior that will be changed to become more like the target behavior.
On the tape, the starting behavior for Clarice to walk to lunch was to have eye
4. Differentially reinforce the initial response until
it occurs consistently. Differential reinforcement refers to reinforcing
a response in the presence of one stimulus and not reinforcing
the same response in the presence of another stimulus. When the
desired response occurs, it should be reinforced immediately to
ensure that reinforcement is delivered only for an appropriate
behavior. However, when shaping a response, it is important to
do everything possible to induce the behavior. Examples would
be, requesting, "Put your hand here;" gestures that
indicate what the person should do next; time schedules for performing
the response, and so on. When you use shaping, your job is not
to adhere to the definition of shaping, but to use all your skills
to get the desired response from your client. On the tape, a sample
of reinforcement is to say, "Mary, great job washing your
face; that is good exercise for your hand and arm."
5. Next, shift the criterion for reinforcement to an intermediate response.
Shaping steps should be large enough so that progress is rapid, but small enough
to be attainable. If you require too large of a step, the behavior may be "lost"
and the response must be reshaped by reverting to an earlier step. On the tape,
an example of a shaping step is to create a verbal sign post to enable the Alzheimer's
resident to better follow thought transitions.
6. Reinforce intermediate
responsesuntil they occur consistently. Intermediate responses must
successively approximate the target behavior; that is, the criterion for reinforcement
is to shift to responses that are more and more similar to the target behavior.
On the tape, for example, reinforcement would be given to a resident using a cane,
while he or she was receiving verbal instructions like, "Step, cane, step,
7. Shift criterion for reinforcementto the
next intermediate response. Shaping via successive approximations involves a gradual
process in which a response must be appropriately developed at one level before
reinforcement is shifted to the next level, or approximation.
Not enough reinforcement: If the criterion for reinforcement is shifted to
the next level too quickly, or if insufficient reinforcement is given to your
client or staff member, the response will be extinguished. -B. Too much
reinforcement: However, if one response receives too much reinforcement, it
may become difficult for you to alter your client's or staff member's response
in the direction of the next approximation. -On the tape, the key to providing an environment of success
is to watch what Mary does with her hands as she washes her face.
If, upon getting the soap on the cloth, she readily washes her
forehead and cheeks, there is no need for reinforcement in this
area. As the tape states, "If you provide too much step-by-step
instruction or reinforcement for Mary, she may feel insulted."
8. Reinforce the response until
it occurs consistently. Steps 7 and 8 of this shaping procedure are repeated until
the target behavior is achieved.
Shaping can be used to condition a
physically handicapped girl to use crutches to walk instead of using a wheelchair.
The target response would be for her to walk 50 steps on crutches. Possible positive
reinforcers might be candy and praise ("Very good".) The starting behavior
is movement toward the crutches. Initially, when the girl makes any movement toward
the crutches, she is reinforced. When she consistently reaches out toward the
crutches, the criterion for reinforcement is shifted to the next intermediate
response, touching the crutches.
an example of each of the following steps in shaping: (1)
Final response or target behavior
(2) Starting behavior toward that target behavior
Personal Reflection Journaling Exercise #2
The preceding section contained
several Instruction techniques. Write three case study examples regarding
how you might use the contents from this section of the Manual or the Instruction
section of the audio tape in your practice. Affix extra paper for your Journaling
entries to the end of this Manual.