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On the last track we discussed cognitive difficulties. We examined five basic cognitive skills. The five basic cognitive skills we will examined are attention and concentration, information processing speed, memory and learning, executive functions, and social cognition.
On this track we will discuss a model for helping clients understand the experience of enjoyment. As you probably know, Dr. Fred Bryant has studied the factors involved in people’s experience of enjoyment and pleasure. Bryant indicated through his research that there are three stages of enjoyment. These three stages of enjoyment are anticipation, savoring the experience, and reminiscing.
We will examine these three stages of enjoyment through how Joann, the mother of a client, helped her schizophrenic son Hank increase his experience of enjoyment. We will also discuss the six steps for improving leisure and recreation. In applying these three stages of enjoyment to the treatment of schizophrenia, I have found that clients can experience longer periods of enjoyment and get the most out of leisure and recreational activities. Sound interesting?
Stage #1 - Anticipation
I stated to Joann, Hank’s mother, "You can help Hank anticipate enjoyable activities by talking to him in a lighthearted way about an upcoming event." Joann highlighted aspects of a museum visit that she expected to be positive. Joann stated to Hank, "I’m really looking forward to visiting the museum again. I just love the grand scale of the architecture." By using ‘I’ statements, Joann displayed her own positive anticipation. Joann then asked Hank what he enjoyed about the museum in order to prompt Hank to consider other pleasant elements of the experience. Do you have a Hank who could benefit from increased anticipation of a pleasant event?
Stage #2 - Savoring the Experience
Joann later told me about her and Hank’s experience dining out after they had visited the museum. Joann stated, "At the restaurant, while we were eating appetizers, I told Hank how much I liked the décor of the restaurant and the ambience. When I asked Hank what he liked, he mentioned the unusual spices the chef used. Then he started talking about how nice the waiter was. Hank was really enjoying himself and said he really liked the dessert selection. So we saved room and ordered three desserts to share and talk about. Hank was really into it. We talked about the flavor, the texture, and the appearance of each dessert."
Think of your Hank. Could learning to savor the experience help your client to maximize the experience of enjoyment?
Stage #3 - Reminiscing
Joann stated, "It’s much easier for Hank to remember things when they are fresh in his mind. Then, later, it’s easier for him to remember again." For example, Hank attended a Thursday night cooking class. Joann recalled Hank returning from class. Joann stated, "I asked him about what happened, who he talked to, what he made, how he made it, and what ingredients he used. Then the following night, we prepared the same recipe together." Does your Hank have trouble reminiscing? Could the memory recall techniques that Joann used help your client?
Would you agree that for the client or for his or her family member, these six steps for improving leisure and recreation could be productive when implemented with respect to the three stages of enjoyment? Could playing this track for a family member of your client be a good idea?
On this track we have discussed a model for helping clients understand the experience of enjoyment. This discussion was based on Bryant’s three stages of enjoyment. These three stages of enjoyment are anticipation, savoring the experience, and reminiscing. We also discussed six steps for improving leisure and recreation.
Peer-Reviewed Journal Article References:
Gard, D. E., Sanchez, A. H., Cooper, K., Fisher, M., Garrett, C., & Vinogradov, S. (2014). Do people with schizophrenia have difficulty anticipating pleasure, engaging in effortful behavior, or both? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(4), 771–782.
Hallford, D. J., Farrell, H., & Lynch, E. (2020). Increasing anticipated and anticipatory pleasure through episodic thinking. Emotion. Advance online publication.
Painter, J. M., & Kring, A. M. (2016). Toward an understanding of anticipatory pleasure deficits in schizophrenia: Memory, prospection, and emotion experience. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(3), 442–452.
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